A Compelling New Theory of Depression

A Compelling New Theory of Depression

A fascinating theory has been put forward by Turhan Canli PhD, Associate Professor of Psychology and Radiology at Stony Brook University, which could change the future direction for research and treatments of depression. 

According to Dr Canli, depression should be re-conceptualised as an infectious disease. His argument is a compelling one.

In a paper published in Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders, Dr Canli suggests that depression could be the result of a parasitic, bacterial or viral infection.

Depression is a pervasive illness, with around 16% of people experiencing an episode at some point in their lives.

There has been little change in treatments over the last few decades and although antidepressants are effective in reducing symptoms in patients with severe symptoms, in patients with mild to moderate symptoms they are no more clinically effective than placebos.

Recurrence of depression is common. Those who have experienced one episode have a 50% chance of recurrence. Those who have experienced depression twice have an 80% chance of experiencing it a third time.

Dr Canli explains, ‘Given this track record, I argue that it is time for an entirely different approach. Instead of conceptualising depression as an emotional disorder, I suggest to reconceptualise it as some form of an infectious disease.’

Dr Canli is also a member of the Program in Neuroscience, and a Senior Fellow in the Center for Medical Humanities, Compassionate Care, and Bioethics. ‘I propose that future research should conduct a concerted search for parasites, bacteria, or viruses that may play a causal role in the etiology of depression.

 Dr Canli presents three arguments for reconceptualising depression as an infectious disease:

  1. ‘Patients with depression experience sickness behaviour’.

    The main criteria for a diagnosis of depression are affective symptoms, specifically a loss of energy and diminished interest in the world and previously enjoyable activities. However  inflammatory biomarkers of depression strongly suggest the origin of depression to be illness related. Dr Canli suggests that the inflammatory markers may indicate the stimulation of the immune system in response to a pathogen such as a parasite, bacterium or virus. He acknowledges that there is currently no direct evidence that depression is caused by a micro-organism, however the process is a plausible one and warrants further research.

  2. There is clear evidence that parasites, bacteria and viruses can affect emotional behavior.

    Parasites: There is evidence that infection by the parasite, T. gondii is associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers similar to that observed in depressed patients;

    Bacteria: Research has begun to investigating the causal links between emotional behaviour and bacteria in the gut.

    Viruses: A meta-analysis of 28 studies looked at the link between depression and infectious agents. Borna disease virus (BDV) has been found to be 3.25 times more likely to be found in depressed patients than in normal controls. Further research is necessary to understand the link.

  3. The genetics of the illness.

    Genetic studies to date have looked at human genes within the human genome (complete set of DNA). However, the human body is host to other micro-organisms, with their own genetic makeup, that can be passed across generations. As a result, ‘the opportunity for genetic discoveries is vastly amplified’.

Based on these three arguments, Dr Canli suggests the future research in the area involve large-scale studies with depressed patients, controls, and infectious-disease related protocols. He explains, ‘Such efforts, if successful, would represent the ‘end of the beginning’, as any such discovery would represent the first step toward developing a vaccination for major depression.’

[irp posts=”897″ name=”Depression: Why Talking Isn’t Enough”]

13 Comments

Jack

i have had terrible depressive symptoms for the past 9 months. my life had fallen apart around me. Anyway, two weeks ago i got a nasty ear and throat infection. i was prescribed antibiotics which didnt work. i was then prescribed a different type which worked a lot better.
This week, for the first time since January i have no depressive symptoms at all. i feel better than i have for a long time.
i was trying to understand what had happened. the only change was the antibiotics, which is what led me to this page. Could this be the answer?

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Meg

This is particularly fascinating to me as my 15-year-old son was brought almost literally to his knees by a sudden, severe depression the week after doing his first 5K obstacle mud run which took him through countless flooded swamps and even a flooded cow pasture. The depression has barely loosened its grip and continues to flare. Because he has never once had depression or even much sadness I am thoroughly convinced there is something biological at work. Blood tests today!

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heysigmund

That is really interesting. There seems to be a lot of research happening around depression at the moment. It’s opening up different pathways but it’s also making me realise that there’s so much more to know about it. I’m pleased your getting blood tests – it sounds as though your son is in good hands. It will be really interesting to see what they reveal. It must have been awful to see such a sudden change in your son. I hope they find something that can give you both comfort. Would love to hear how you go.

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Meg

Strange to say how upset I am that his blood tests showed nothing. They did a whole CBC workup and blood counts, adrenal function and thyroid are all perfectly normal. No sign of infection. I am waiting to hear the results of Lyme’s disease and thinking of using a consult with a pediatric neurologist to look at other testing. Has anyone heard of PANDAS? It’s a strep infection that affects the ganglia/brain stem and causes mood disorders, tics, etc. It’s a stretch but worth exploring. Maybe I’m in denial? But the suddeness and severity of this has me thinking physiological illness.

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heysigmund

I completely understand why you would be upset about the bloods not showing anything. It’s just not making any sense for you is it, that’s the awful thing about this. There was a comment in the article on the Anxiety in Kids post about PANDAS. The post is on the home page – the first one in the slider up the top. It was posted on 15 March by a mother who’s been there. There’s a link there that might be helpful for you. I really don’t know enough about it to comment but I think it’s good to be open to everything. Your doctors would be the ones to talk to. It sounds as though you have a good team there who are trying everything they can to get to the bottom of it. Having said that, there’s a lot to be said for a mother’s intuition.

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Debra Farrell

I have suffered since I was 15 years old, I have years where I am fine but it comes back. My mother and my daughter also suffer, my Daughter most off the time. It is very encouraging that research could be going in a new direction.

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heysigmund

Be assured that there is so much research happening around depression. It just affects so many people and it’s important that the research keeps moving forward so we can come up with better treatment options. Just know that it’s happening. Thank you for taking the time to make contact.

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Mandy Titterton

I think he could be right, i’ve suffered with depression all my life and have thought for some time i could have a bacterial infection or parasites

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Karen Young

His arguments make really good sense don’t they. We’re learning more about depression every day but there’s still so much to learn. It’s so good to see new research tracks opening up. Hope you’re doing okay.

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Susan

I became mentally ill at 37, at the same time I had bad acne rosacea, with lots of pustules, I have noticed that with a flare of this disease I also had major depression . So now when the flare starts i have two weeks on antibiotics and then have a treatment with Limelight strength laser to my face. This keeps it away for two years. I have also had weight gain and gut problems from the drugs I was prescribed, i know my gut flora was affected so i am also thinking there is a link to a germ. I still struggle but can manage with these measures and a sensible diet, however weight loss doesnt seem to happen easily once your body has aclimatISed to a larger weight.

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For our children, we start building the foundations for adolescence in their earliest years - the relationship we’ll have with them, who they are going to be, how they are going to be. One of the things we’ll want to build is their capacity to know their own minds and be brave enough to use it. This isn’t easy, even for adults, so the more practice we give them, the more they’ll be able to access their strong, brave, beautiful minds when they need to - when we aren’t there.

This means letting them have a say when we can, asking their opinions, and letting them disagree.

When kids and teens argue, they’re communicating. We need to listen, but the need won’t always be obvious. When littles argue because it’s spaghetti for dinner and ‘I hate spaghetti so much’ (even though last week and the 5 years before last week, spaghetti was their favourite), they might be expressing a need for sleep, power and influence, or independence. All are valid. When your teen argues because they want to do something you’ve said no to, the need might be to preserve their felt sense of inclusion with their tribe, or independence from you. Again, all valid. 

Of course, a valid need doesn’t mean it will always be met. Sometimes our needs might need to take priority to theirs, such as our need to keep them safe, or for them to learn that they can still be okay if everything doesn’t go their way, or that sometimes people will have conflicting needs that need to take priority. What’s important is letting them know we hear them and we get it.

It’s going to take time for kids to learn how to argue and express themselves respectfully. In the meantime, the words might be clumsy, loud, angry. This is when we need to hold on to ourselves, meet them where they are, let them know we hear them, and step into our leadership presence. We might give them what they need because it makes sense and because there isn’t enough reason not to. Sometimes, after giving them space to be heard we’ll need to stand our ground. Other times we might solve the problem collaboratively: This is what you want. This is what I want. Let’s talk about how we can we both get what we need.♥️
Anxiety will always tilt our focus to the risks, often at the expense of the very real rewards. It does this to keep us safe. We’re more likely to run into trouble if we miss the potential risks than if we miss the potential gains. 

This means that anxiety will swell just as much in reaction to a real life-threat, as it will to the things that might cause heartache (feels awful, but not life-threatening), but which will more likely come with great rewards. Wholehearted living means actively shifting our awareness to what we have to gain by taking a safe risk. 

Sometimes staying safe will be the exactly right thing to do, but sometimes we need to fight for that important or meaningful thing by hushing the noise of anxiety and moving bravely forward. 

When children or teens are on the edge of brave, but anxiety is pushing them back, ask, ‘But what would it be like if you could?’ ♥️

#parenting #parent #mindfulparenting #childanxiety #positiveparenting #heywarrior #heyawesome
Except I don’t do hungry me or tired me or intolerant me, as, you know … intolerably. Most of the time. Sometimes.
Growth doesn’t always announce itself in ways that feel safe or invited. Often, it can leave us exhausted and confused and with dirt in our pores from the fury of the battle. It is this way for all of us, our children too. 

The truth of it all is that we are all born with a profound and immense capacity to rise through challenges, changes and heartache. There is something else we are born with too, and it is the capacity to add softness, strength, and safety for each other when the movement towards growth feels too big. Not always by finding the answer, but by being it - just by being - safe, warm, vulnerable, real. As it turns out, sometimes, this is the richest source of growth for all of us.
When the world feel sunsettled, the ripple can reach the hearts, minds and spirits of kids and teens whether or not they are directly affected. As the important adult in the life of any child or teen, you have a profound capacity to give them what they need to steady their world again.

When their fears are really big, such as the death of a parent, being alone in the world, being separated from people they love, children might put this into something else. 

This can also happen because they can’t always articulate the fear. Emotional ‘experiences’ don’t lay in the brain as words, they lay down as images and sensory experiences. This is why smells and sounds can trigger anxiety, even if they aren’t connected to a scary experience. The ‘experiences’ also don’t need to be theirs. Hearing ‘about’ is enough.

The content of the fear might seem irrational but the feeling will be valid. Think of it as the feeling being the part that needs you. Their anxiety, sadness, anger (which happens to hold down other more vulnerable emotions) needs to be seen, held, contained and soothed, so they can feel safe again - and you have so much power to make that happen. 

‘I can see how worried you are. There are some big things happening in the world at the moment, but my darling, you are safe. I promise. You are so safe.’ 

If they have been through something big, the truth is that they have been through something frightening AND they are safe, ‘We’re going through some big things and it can be confusing and scary. We’ll get through this. It’s okay to feel scared or sad or angry. Whatever you feel is okay, and I’m here and I love you and we are safe. We can get through anything together.’

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