A Compelling New Theory of Depression

A Compelling New Theory of Depression

A fascinating theory has been put forward by Turhan Canli PhD, Associate Professor of Psychology and Radiology at Stony Brook University, which could change the future direction for research and treatments of depression. 

According to Dr Canli, depression should be re-conceptualised as an infectious disease. His argument is a compelling one.

In a paper published in Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders, Dr Canli suggests that depression could be the result of a parasitic, bacterial or viral infection.

Depression is a pervasive illness, with around 16% of people experiencing an episode at some point in their lives.

There has been little change in treatments over the last few decades and although antidepressants are effective in reducing symptoms in patients with severe symptoms, in patients with mild to moderate symptoms they are no more clinically effective than placebos.

Recurrence of depression is common. Those who have experienced one episode have a 50% chance of recurrence. Those who have experienced depression twice have an 80% chance of experiencing it a third time.

Dr Canli explains, ‘Given this track record, I argue that it is time for an entirely different approach. Instead of conceptualising depression as an emotional disorder, I suggest to reconceptualise it as some form of an infectious disease.’

Dr Canli is also a member of the Program in Neuroscience, and a Senior Fellow in the Center for Medical Humanities, Compassionate Care, and Bioethics. ‘I propose that future research should conduct a concerted search for parasites, bacteria, or viruses that may play a causal role in the etiology of depression.

 Dr Canli presents three arguments for reconceptualising depression as an infectious disease:

  1. ‘Patients with depression experience sickness behaviour’.

    The main criteria for a diagnosis of depression are affective symptoms, specifically a loss of energy and diminished interest in the world and previously enjoyable activities. However  inflammatory biomarkers of depression strongly suggest the origin of depression to be illness related. Dr Canli suggests that the inflammatory markers may indicate the stimulation of the immune system in response to a pathogen such as a parasite, bacterium or virus. He acknowledges that there is currently no direct evidence that depression is caused by a micro-organism, however the process is a plausible one and warrants further research.

  2. There is clear evidence that parasites, bacteria and viruses can affect emotional behavior.

    Parasites: There is evidence that infection by the parasite, T. gondii is associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers similar to that observed in depressed patients;

    Bacteria: Research has begun to investigating the causal links between emotional behaviour and bacteria in the gut.

    Viruses: A meta-analysis of 28 studies looked at the link between depression and infectious agents. Borna disease virus (BDV) has been found to be 3.25 times more likely to be found in depressed patients than in normal controls. Further research is necessary to understand the link.

  3. The genetics of the illness.

    Genetic studies to date have looked at human genes within the human genome (complete set of DNA). However, the human body is host to other micro-organisms, with their own genetic makeup, that can be passed across generations. As a result, ‘the opportunity for genetic discoveries is vastly amplified’.

Based on these three arguments, Dr Canli suggests the future research in the area involve large-scale studies with depressed patients, controls, and infectious-disease related protocols. He explains, ‘Such efforts, if successful, would represent the ‘end of the beginning’, as any such discovery would represent the first step toward developing a vaccination for major depression.’

[irp posts=”897″ name=”Depression: Why Talking Isn’t Enough”]

13 Comments

Jack

i have had terrible depressive symptoms for the past 9 months. my life had fallen apart around me. Anyway, two weeks ago i got a nasty ear and throat infection. i was prescribed antibiotics which didnt work. i was then prescribed a different type which worked a lot better.
This week, for the first time since January i have no depressive symptoms at all. i feel better than i have for a long time.
i was trying to understand what had happened. the only change was the antibiotics, which is what led me to this page. Could this be the answer?

Reply
what is depression

I’m commentіng to let you understand what a benefіcial experience our girl developed usiong youг site.
She realized рlenty ⲟf things, not to mention what it’ѕ like to hwve a great
giving style to get foⅼks effortlеssly fully understand sveral extremely
tough things. You acyually did more than her еⲭpectations.

Thank you for offering such effectіve, һealthy,
educatіonal and unbique tips on the topic to Tanya.

Reply
Meg

This is particularly fascinating to me as my 15-year-old son was brought almost literally to his knees by a sudden, severe depression the week after doing his first 5K obstacle mud run which took him through countless flooded swamps and even a flooded cow pasture. The depression has barely loosened its grip and continues to flare. Because he has never once had depression or even much sadness I am thoroughly convinced there is something biological at work. Blood tests today!

Reply
heysigmund

That is really interesting. There seems to be a lot of research happening around depression at the moment. It’s opening up different pathways but it’s also making me realise that there’s so much more to know about it. I’m pleased your getting blood tests – it sounds as though your son is in good hands. It will be really interesting to see what they reveal. It must have been awful to see such a sudden change in your son. I hope they find something that can give you both comfort. Would love to hear how you go.

Reply
Meg

Strange to say how upset I am that his blood tests showed nothing. They did a whole CBC workup and blood counts, adrenal function and thyroid are all perfectly normal. No sign of infection. I am waiting to hear the results of Lyme’s disease and thinking of using a consult with a pediatric neurologist to look at other testing. Has anyone heard of PANDAS? It’s a strep infection that affects the ganglia/brain stem and causes mood disorders, tics, etc. It’s a stretch but worth exploring. Maybe I’m in denial? But the suddeness and severity of this has me thinking physiological illness.

Reply
heysigmund

I completely understand why you would be upset about the bloods not showing anything. It’s just not making any sense for you is it, that’s the awful thing about this. There was a comment in the article on the Anxiety in Kids post about PANDAS. The post is on the home page – the first one in the slider up the top. It was posted on 15 March by a mother who’s been there. There’s a link there that might be helpful for you. I really don’t know enough about it to comment but I think it’s good to be open to everything. Your doctors would be the ones to talk to. It sounds as though you have a good team there who are trying everything they can to get to the bottom of it. Having said that, there’s a lot to be said for a mother’s intuition.

Reply
Debra Farrell

I have suffered since I was 15 years old, I have years where I am fine but it comes back. My mother and my daughter also suffer, my Daughter most off the time. It is very encouraging that research could be going in a new direction.

Reply
heysigmund

Be assured that there is so much research happening around depression. It just affects so many people and it’s important that the research keeps moving forward so we can come up with better treatment options. Just know that it’s happening. Thank you for taking the time to make contact.

Reply
Mandy Titterton

I think he could be right, i’ve suffered with depression all my life and have thought for some time i could have a bacterial infection or parasites

Reply
Karen Young

His arguments make really good sense don’t they. We’re learning more about depression every day but there’s still so much to learn. It’s so good to see new research tracks opening up. Hope you’re doing okay.

Reply
Susan

I became mentally ill at 37, at the same time I had bad acne rosacea, with lots of pustules, I have noticed that with a flare of this disease I also had major depression . So now when the flare starts i have two weeks on antibiotics and then have a treatment with Limelight strength laser to my face. This keeps it away for two years. I have also had weight gain and gut problems from the drugs I was prescribed, i know my gut flora was affected so i am also thinking there is a link to a germ. I still struggle but can manage with these measures and a sensible diet, however weight loss doesnt seem to happen easily once your body has aclimatISed to a larger weight.

Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Follow Hey Sigmund on Instagram

Let them know …

Anxiety shows up to check that you’re okay, not to tell you that you’re not. It’s your brain’s way of saying, ‘Not sure - there might be some trouble here, but there might not be, but just in case you should be ready for it if it comes, which it might not – but just in case you’d better be ready to run or fight – but it might be totally fine.’ Brains can be so confusing sometimes! 

You have a brain that is strong, healthy and hardworking. It’s magnificent and it’s doing a brilliant job of doing exactly what brains are meant to do – keep you alive. 

Your brain is fabulous, but it needs you to be the boss. Here’s how. When you feel anxious, ask yourself two questions:

- ‘Do I feel like this because I’m in danger or because there’s something brave or important I need to do?’

- Then, ‘Is this a time for me to be safe (sometimes it might be) or is this a time for me to be brave?

And remember, you will always have ‘brave’ in you, and anxiety doesn’t change that a bit.♥️

#positiveparenting #mindfulparenting #parenting #childanxiety #heywarrior #heywarriorbook
The temptation to fix their big feelings can be seismic. Often this is connected to needing to ease our own discomfort at their discomfort, which is so very normal.

Big feelings in them are meant to raise (sometimes big) feelings in us. This is all a healthy part of the attachment system. It happens to mobilise us to respond to their distress, or to protect them if their distress is in response to danger.

Emotion is energy in motion. We don’t want to bury it, stop it, smother it, and we don’t need to fix it. What we need to do is make a safe passage for it to move through them. 

Think of emotion like a river. Our job is to hold the ground strong and steady at the banks so the river can move safely, without bursting the banks.

However hard that river is racing, they need to know we can be with the river (the emotion), be with them, and handle it. This might feel or look like you aren’t doing anything, but actually it’s everything.

The safety that comes from you being the strong, steady presence that can lovingly contain their big feelings will let the emotional energy move through them and bring the brain back to calm.

Eventually, when they have lots of experience of us doing this with them, they will learn to do it for themselves, but that will take time and experience. The experience happens every time you hold them steady through their feelings. 

This doesn’t mean ignoring big behaviour. For them, this can feel too much like bursting through the banks, which won’t feel safe. Sometimes you might need to recall the boundary and let them know where the edges are, while at the same time letting them see that you can handle the big of the feeling. Its about loving and leading all at once. ‘It’s okay to be angry. It’s not okay to use those words at me.’

Ultimately, big feelings are a call for support. Sometimes support looks like breathing and being with. Sometimes it looks like showing them you can hold the boundary, even when they feel like they’re about to burst through it. And if they’re using spicy words to get us to back off, it might look like respecting their need for space but staying in reaching distance, ‘Ok, I’m right here whenever you need.’♥️
We all need certain things to feel safe enough to put ourselves into the world. Kids with anxiety have magic in them, every one of them, but until they have a felt sense of safety, it will often stay hidden.

‘Safety’ isn’t about what is actually safe or not, but about what they feel. At school, they might have the safest, most loving teacher in the safest, most loving school. This doesn’t mean they will feel enough relational safety straight away that will make it easier for them to do hard things. They can still do those hard things, but those things are going to feel bigger for a while. This is where they’ll need us and their other anchor adult to be patient, gentle, and persistent.

Children aren’t meant to feel safe with and take the lead from every adult. It’s not the adult’s role that makes the difference, but their relationship with the child.

Children are no different to us. Just because an adult tells them they’ll be okay, it doesn’t mean they’ll feel it or believe it. What they need is to be given time to actually experience the person as being safe, supportive and ready to catch them.

Relationship is key. The need for safety through relationship isn’t an ‘anxiety thing’. It’s a ‘human thing’. When we feel closer to the people around us, we can rise above the mountains in our way. When we feel someone really caring about us, we’re more likely to open up to their influence
and learn from them.

But we have to be patient. Even for teachers with big hearts and who undertand the importance of attachment relationships, it can take time.

Any adult at school can play an important part in helping a child feel safe – as long as that adult is loving, warm, and willing to do the work to connect with that child. It might be the librarian, the counsellor, the office person, a teacher aide. It doesn’t matter who, as long as it is someone who can be available for that child at dropoff or when feelings get big during the day and do little check-ins along the way.

A teacher, or any important adult can make a lasting difference by asking, ‘How do I build my relationship with this child so s/he trusts me when I say, ‘I’ve got you, and I know you can do this.’♥️
There is a beautiful ‘everythingness’ in all of us. The key to living well is being able to live flexibly and more deliberately between our edges.

So often though, the ‘shoulds’ and ‘should nots’ we inhale in childhood and as we grow, lead us to abandon some of those precious, needed parts of us. ‘Don’t be angry/ selfish/ shy/ rude. She’s not a maths person.’ ‘Don’t argue.’ Ugh.

Let’s make sure our children don’t cancel parts of themselves. They are everything, but not always all at once. They can be anxious and brave. Strong and soft. Angry and calm. Big and small. Generous and self-ish. Some things they will find hard, and they can do hard things. None of these are wrong ways to be. What trips us up is rigidity, and only ever responding from one side of who we can be.

We all have extremes or parts we favour. This is what makes up the beautiful, complex, individuality of us. We don’t need to change this, but the more we can open our children to the possibility in them, the more options they will have in responding to challenges, the everyday, people, and the world. 

We can do this by validating their ‘is’ without needing them to be different for a while in the moment, and also speaking to the other parts of them when we can. 

‘Yes maths is hard, and I know you can do hard things. How can I help?’

‘I can see how anxious you feel. That’s so okay. I also know you have brave in you.’

‘I love your ‘big’ and the way you make us laugh. You light up the room.’ And then at other times: ‘It can be hard being in a room with new people can’t it. It’s okay to be quiet. I could see you taking it all in.’

‘It’s okay to want space from people. Sometimes you just want your things and yourself for yourself, hey. I feel like that sometimes too. I love the way you know when you need this.’ And then at other times, ‘You looked like you loved being with your friends today. I loved watching you share.’

The are everything, but not all at once. Our job is to help them live flexibly and more deliberately between the full range of who they are and who they can be: anxious/brave; kind/self-ish; focussed inward/outward; angry/calm. This will take time, and there is no hurry.♥️

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This