How to Calm Anxiety and Depression – The Easy Way to Restore Vital Neurochemicals

Getting hot and sweaty might not be great for comfort but it’s brilliant for mental health. If getting hot and sweaty isn’t your thing, stay with me – there are other ways to get the full mental health benefits of exercise without the intensity and your brain will love you for it – like, love you. Exercise is the wonderdrug-but-not-a-drug of the mental health world. Volumes of research have testified to its incredible capacity to strengthen mental health, and now we’re starting to uncover why. 

There is no doubt that exercise is as important to mental health as it is to physical health. People with anxiety and depression have lower levels of vital neurochemicals. The exact cause of these lower levels is unclear and researchers are working hard to understand the full picture. What we do know is that regardless of the cause, when the levels of these neurochemicals are restored to healthy levels, the symptoms of anxiety and depression tend to fade. 

Neurochemicals are chemicals in the brain that allow brain cells to communicate with each other. Everything we do depends on the strength of this chatter between brain cells. The better the communication between cells (as in faster and stronger) the stronger that part of the brain will be, and the more effectively the different parts of the brain will work together. 

Two of the neurochemicals that have an important role in mental health, particularly anxiety and depression, are glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid – let’s call it ‘GABA’ for short.

New research published in the Journal of Neuroscience has found that exercise restores the levels of these two neurochemicals to healthy levels. 

How exercise strengthens the brain against anxiety.

Some brain cells are born with the personality of puppies. They are easily excited and quick to fire up. We need these. They are healthy and normal and help us to function when we need to be ‘on’. It is because of these excitable neurons (brain cells) that we can think quickly, act quickly and remember. In the right amount and at the right times, these neurons are little gems. 

To stop the excitable neurons getting too carried away and causing trouble, the brain has a neurochemical, GABA, which is the brain’s ‘calm down’ chemical. GABA plays a key role in the way the body responds to stress. Its main job is to settle the brain cells that get a little too playful and over-excited. If the levels of GABA in the brain are low, there’s nothing to calm these over-excited neurons. 

Sometimes too much of a good thing is wonderful. Sometimes it causes anxiety. When there are too many excited neurons firing up for some fight or flight action in the absence of any real need, anxiety happens. Anxiety is the brain doing what healthy brains are meant to do, but a little too much. 

Most of the substances that ease the symptoms of anxiety (alcohol, medication) work by boosting GABA in the brain. A group of drugs that are commonly used for anxiety are benzodiazepines. They work by mimicking the role of GABA in the brain. These drugs have been prescribed widely for anxiety but research is now discovering that extended term use has enormous potential to harm the brain. Exercise is a healthy, non-synthetic way to elevate the same neurochemicals that are targeted by anti-anxiety medication.

How exercise eases depression.

Sometimes we need neurons to fire, but sometimes they can fire unnecessarily (as in anxiety) and we need them to calm down. The balance of excitement and inhibition of neurons needs to be kept in check. When the balance is knocked out, it can lead to anxiety or depression.

Glutamate is the main chemical in the brain that is responsible for stimulating the neurons that need to fire. It is involved in memory, emotions and cognition. When the levels of glutamate are too low or too high, depression happens.  

When the levels of glutamate are too high. 

The role of glutamate in the depression is complicated and depends on the levels in particular areas of the brain. Elevated levels of glutamate have been found in the brains of people with depression, specifically in the basal ganglia, an area that has a key role in motor control, motivation and decision-making. High levels of glutamate in this part of the brain have been associated with anhedonia (an inability to experience pleasure), and slow motor function.

When glutamate is too high, it can become toxic to neurons and glia (the cells that make sure the brain stays healthy). There is extensive research evidence that supports the relationship between systemic inflammation and depression. People with depression have all the primary markers of systemic inflammation (caused by stress, diet, toxins, allergies, illness). Researchers now think that one of the ways that inflammation may do this is by increasing glutamate levels in critical areas of the brain. 

‘We think that one of the ways that inflammation may harm the brain and cause depression is by increasing levels of glutamate in sensitive regions of the brain, possibly through effects on glia.‘ – Ebrahim Haroon, MD, assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute. 

And when the levels of glutamate are too low.

A large body of research has found that people with depression have low levels of glutamate in certain areas of the brain. These are the areas that are changed through exercise.

According to the STAR*D trial (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression), the largest clinical trial study of treatments for major depressive disorder and funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, only about one third of people who use anti-depressants find long-term relief from their symptoms. For the remaining two thirds, treatment with an anti-depressant alone is not enough to relieve their depression.

Clearly something is missing. An abundance of research has shown that exercise may be the key. The research is early but it gives hope that exercise might be an effective alternative or adjunct to antidepressants. The researchers note that exercise as an alternative might be particularly important for people under the age of 25, who can sometimes experience more side effects from SSRIs, the widely used class of antidepressants that synthetically adjust the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. 

How exercise builds a happy brain.

Exercise elevates the levels of glutamate in the areas where it needs elevating.

Research published in the Journal of Neuroscience showed that after exercise, significant increases in glutamate were found in the visual cortex (which processes visual information) and the anterior cingulate cortex (which in involved in keeping heart rate steady, some cognitive functions and emotion). People who did not exercise did not show these increases.

‘Major depressive disorder is often characterized by depleted glutamate and GABA, which return to normal when mental health is restored. Our study shows that exercise activates the metabolic pathway that replenishes these neurotransmitters.’ – Richard Maddock, study lead author and professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California.

The effects of exercise on glutamate were still evident in the week following the exercise session.

During exercise, the brain uses up a lot of fuel in the form of glucose and other carbs, but up until recently, we haven’t understood what the brain does with all of that energy. Now we have an idea. It seems that the brain is slurping up energy to make more of the neurochemicals that the brain needs to stay healthy and strong.

And if vigorous exercise isn’t your thing …

If you firmly believe that under no circumstances should ‘vigorous’ ever be paired with ‘exercise’, then not to worry – science has your back too. New research has found that exercise and relaxation like yoga can ease anxiety. Relaxation and exercise aren’t two words that you would typically expect to find together (or maybe that’s just me) – but there they are. They’ve finally found each other and we’re all the better for it. 

How to start exercising when your favourite thing is ‘not exercising’.

Exercise can be a hard thing to get into if avoiding it is one of the things you do spectacularly well. The key is to start. The more you do it, the easier it will get. Pretty soon, you’ll feel the difference it makes to your mood, even if you’re still waiting for your muscles to arrive. 

  1. Find what you love.

    Anything that gets your heart pumping will be good for you, but the more you enjoy it, the more you’ll stick with it. Think team sports, walking up a hill outdoors, dancing, martial arts, kicking a ball, riding a bike or a brisk walk. You’re looking for long-term changes in brain health and mood, which will mean a long-term plan. 

  2. ‘Vigorous’ means whatever is vigorous for you.

    You just need to get your heart going. This will look different for everyone, depending on where you’re starting from. It doesn’t have to mean punching out 45 minutes on the ‘you’ve got to be kidding’ level of on an exercise bike. It could be a brisk 20 minute walk or 8-10 minutes of going up and down the stairs a couple of times a day. Whatever works for you. Try for something you can do at least five times a week.

  3. Ahhh the feel-good. You know it’s coming.

    Exercise triggers the release of endorphins and other feel-good chemicals. Know that they’re coming – but you’ll have to work for them. Some people will thrive on getting hot and sweaty, but for those of us who are more worried about not collapsing than thriving, knowing that the feel-good is coming can keep you on track. Be mindful of how you feel in the hours after you exercise and use this to tap into some needed motivation when you need to. Think of it as therapy. Or just remind yourself that this (session) too shall pass.

  4. Just get your shoes on … and then decide.

    Doing something hard involves a series of simple things put end to end. If you hate the thought of exercise, don’t tell yourself that’s what you’re doing. Your body will go wherever your mind puts it. Start with the first simple step. Let’s say, clothes. Tell yourself that you’ll get dressed into something that would be okay to exercise in and then you’ll decide what to do next – it might be exercise, it might be changing back into your comfy pants and eating spaghetti in front of tv. Once you’re dressed, you may as well put your shoes on. That’s all you have to do. After that, then you can decide. When your shoes are on, walk outside the front door and then see how you feel. Once you’ve done this you’ll have some momentum up and it will be easier to keep going than it will be to stop. Just tell yourself you’re going to only take one small step. It’s ridiculous how convincing you can be.

  5. Be nice to you. OK?

    If you miss a day, don’t let that slow you down. You haven’t wrecked it and it isn’t all for nothing. Just keep going tomorrow. If you whip yourself too hard when things don’t go right, the temptation to pull out all together will be immense. 

And finally …

Brains were meant to be in bodies that move. Fortunately, they don’t need to move that well. Modern living has meant that we have everything at our fingertips. This is a beautiful thing – having to hunt for food and move between caves is something we can all do without, but we need to make sure that we give our stone-age brains what they need to thrive. One of the most vital of these is exercise. Though we are still working to understand why exercise is so important to mental health, we know for certain that the relationship is there, and that it’s a powerful one.

20 Comments

Sobuj

Hey Karen! You did it wonderfully. If we are aware of our feeling, then we need to exercise regularly. Your information helps me very much because I have depression and severe anxiety. Anyway, thank you very much for the nice sharing.

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Angelica J

I’ve read the articles and yet i’m at dismay. I am a very concerned person of my own health and it may affect my family in a negative manner. How do i keep my personal feelings from interrupting the exercises to keep me straight.

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Karen Young

You can feel one way, and act another. Be aware of what you are feeling, then exercise regardless of how you feel. When you exercise consistently, it will start to help the way you feel by the changes it causes in your brain.

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Gwen

Wonderful, Wonderful, Wonderful!!! Thank you, thank you, thank you for that breakdown on the benefits of exercise for depression and anxiety. Im just getting into mindfulness also. I am looking forward to having some great changes in my life. I just discovered your site and look forward to reading more of your articles.

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Hey Sigmund

Thanks so much Gwen! Mindfulness is amazing. It’s great that you’re giving it a go. I’m pleased you found me and I hope you keep finding plenty of helpful info here.

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Chet

Excellent article……but don’t forget the benefit you receive from an increase in the neurotransmitters Dopamine and Serotonin. Normal Dopamine levels are necessary for proper executive function (planning and completing tasks), proper sensory function (seeing,hearing etc.), blood pressure control and the reward system (feeling of happiness). Serotonin levels are associated with moodiness, anxiety and depression.

Thanks for bringing exercise to the forefront, as it is so important for our physical and mental well being.

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Nancy

I have M E and Sciatica. I don’t have the energy or mobility to exercise. If I over exert myself I end up in bed for days, even a simple short walk can totally drain me. I have depression & severe anxiety. What can I do to help myself please.

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Anamika

Having OCD, has become a big hurdle to go out, forget running. I used to love cycling. But after this OCD, am always worried about not getting dirt touching me, scared of birds droppings, stamping on something dirty on road.
I want to be free from this and be relaxed and happy, but how is what I wonder.

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Hey Sigmund

Anamika it sounds like OCD is really making things tough for you. If it’s getting in the way of your everyday life, it might be helpful to get outside support in the form of counselling. Mindfulness is amazing and there is plenty of research that has shown how it can strengthen the brain against anxiety https://www.heysigmund.com/overcoming-anxiety-mindfulness/. And this article talks about how https://www.heysigmund.com/mindfulness-what-how-why/. Here is an article that you might also find useful https://www.heysigmund.com/our-second-brain-and-stress-anxiety-depression-mood/. It explains the very strong connection between the mental health and the gut and what you can do to help things along. I hope there is something here that is helpful for you.

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Gail

What about anxiety and depression that has been caused by pushing oneself to exhaustion by overwork and apparently in someone who has been exercising a lot and regularly ?

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Hey Sigmund

As with so many things, too much exercise is too much. Even the things we need to stay alive (think oxygen, healthy food, water) will do damage if there is too much. Physical exhaustion will stress the body and the mind and will cause it’s own problems. Other things that are also important to a healthy, balanced life and strong mental health are sleep, healthy food, social connection, relaxation or stillness (as in mindfulness). It’s important to balance exercise with other lifestyle facts. Here is an article that might be able to help you https://www.heysigmund.com/the-non-medication-ways-to-deal-with-depression-that-are-as-effective-as-medication/.

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Jen

Would love to print this and to share on Facebook but can’t find an option to do either.

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Hey Sigmund

Yes Jen I can help you with that. On a laptop or desktop the share buttons are on the left hand side of the article. The print button is the green one at the bottom. On a mobile, you’ll find the share buttons behind the grey ‘Share This’ bar at the bottom of the page. When you touch it, it will expand and you’ll see the different share options. Hope that helps. And thanks for sharing!

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Dawn-marie

All this exercise is good for you is all very well but what if you are unable to exercise due to disabilitys? I used to live the gym n lots of different exercises but due to an injury in my back im now not very mobile.Ive put a lot of the 12st i lost back on as im the type that finds it difficult to lose weight without exercising.This has also lead to major depression as u can imagine so wot can I do when I can’t exercise.

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Hey Sigmund

Dawn-marie I understand the difference not being able to exercise must have made to you and your life. It sounds as though it used to be an important part of your life, which would make not being able to exercise all the more harder. Here is an article that might be interesting for you https://www.heysigmund.com/the-non-medication-ways-to-deal-with-depression-that-are-as-effective-as-medication/.

Also, if you’re not already doing it, I would really urge you to try mindfulness. It has proven to be really effective as a therapy option for depression. Here is an article that explains the research https://www.heysigmund.com/mindfulness-as-effective-as-medication-in-preventing-relapse-in-depression/. And this one explains the how https://www.heysigmund.com/mindfulness-what-how-why/. Another great way to get started is with the Smiling Minds app. Here it is if you want to have a look at that http://smilingmind.com.au. Hopefully this will give you something to try.

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JF

Awesome timing! Great motivation. I love your articles. Keep up the good work.

Reply

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We teach our kids to respect adults and other children, and they should – respect is an important part of growing up to be a pretty great human. There’s something else though that’s even more important – teaching them to respect themselves first. 

We can’t stop difficult people coming into their lives. They might be teachers, coaches, peers, and eventually, colleagues, or perhaps people connected to the people who love them. What we can do though is give our kids independence of mind and permission to recognise that person and their behaviour as unacceptable to them. We can teach our kids that being kind and respectful doesn’t necessarily mean accepting someone’s behaviour, beliefs or influence. 

The kindness and respect we teach our children to show to others should never be used against them by those broken others who might do harm. We have to recognise as adults that the words and attitudes directed to our children can be just as damaging as anything physical. 

If the behaviour is from an adult, it’s up to us to guard our child’s safe space in the world even harder. That might be by withdrawing support for the adult, using our own voice with the adult to elevate our child’s, asking our child what they need and how we can help, helping them find their voice, withdrawing them from the environment. 

Of course there will be times our children do or say things that aren’t okay, but this never makes it okay for any adult in your child’s life to treat them in a way that leads them to feeling ‘less than’.

Sometimes the difficult person will be a peer. There is no ‘one certain way’ to deal with this. Sometimes it will involve mediation, role playing responses, clarifying the other child’s behaviour, asking for support from other adults in the environment, or letting go of the friendship.

Learning that it’s okay to let go of relationships is such an important part of full living. Too often we hold on to people who don’t deserve us. Not everyone who comes into our lives is meant to stay and if we can help our children start to think about this when they’re young, they’ll be so much more empowered and deliberate in their relationships when they’re older.♥️
When we are angry, there will always be another emotion underneath it. It is this way for all of us. 

Anger itself is a valid emotion so it’s important not to dismiss it. Emotion is e-motion - energy in motion. It has to find a way out, which is why telling an angry child to calm down or to keep their bodies still will only make things worse for them. They might comply, but their bodies will still be in a state of distress. 

Often, beneath an angry child is an anxious one needing our help. It’s the ‘fight’ part of the fight or flight response. As with all emotions, anger has a job to do - to help us to safety through movement, or to recruit support, or to give us the physical resources to meet a need or to change something that needs changing. It doesn’t mean it does the job well, because an angry brain means the feeling brain has the baton, while the thinking brain sits out for a while. What it means is that there is a valid need there and this young person is doing their very best to meet it, given their available resources in the moment or their developmental stage. 

Children need the same thing we all need when we’re feeling fierce - to be seen,  heard, and supported; to find a way to get the energy out, either with words or movement. Not to be shut down or ‘fixed’. 

Our job isn’t to stop their anger, but to help them find ways to feel it and express it in ways that don’t do damage. This will take lots of experience, and lots of time - and that’s okay.♥️
The SCCR Online Conference 2021 is a wonderful initiative by @sccrcentre (Scottish Centre for Conflict Resolution) which will explore ’The Power of Reconnection’. I’ve been working with SCCR for many years. They do incredible work to build relationships between young people and the important adults around them, and I’m excited to be working with them again as part of this conference.

More than ever, relationships matter. They heal, provide a buffer against stress, and make the world feel a little softer and safer for our young people. Building meaningful connections can take time, and even the strongest relationships can feel the effects of disconnection from time to time. As part of this free webinar, I’ll be talking about the power of attachment relationships, and ways to build relationships with the children and teens in your life that protect, strengthen, and heal. 

The workshop will be on Monday 11 October at 7pm Brisbane, Australia time (10am Scotland time). The link to register is in my story.
There are many things that can send a nervous system into distress. These can include physiological (tired, hungry, unwell), sensory overload/ underload, real or perceived threat (anxiety), stressed resources (having to share, pay attention, learn new things, putting a lid on what they really think or want - the things that can send any of us to the end of ourselves).

Most of the time it’s developmental - the grown up brain is being built and still has a way to go. Like all beautiful, strong, important things, brains take time to build. The part of the brain that has a heavy hand in regulation launches into its big developmental window when kids are about 6 years old. It won’t be fully done developing until mid-late 20s. This is a great thing - it means we have a wide window of influence, and there is no hurry.

Like any building work, on the way to completion things will get messy sometimes - and that’s okay. It’s not a reflection of your young one and it’s not a reflection of your parenting. It’s a reflection of a brain in the midst of a build. It’s wondrous and fascinating and frustrating and maddening - it’s all the things.

The messy times are part of their development, not glitches in it. They are how it’s meant to be. They are important opportunities for us to influence their growth. It’s just how it happens. We have to be careful not to judge our children or ourselves because of these messy times, or let the judgement of others fill the space where love, curiosity, and gentle guidance should be. For sure, some days this will be easy, and some days it will feel harder - like splitting an atom with an axe kind of hard.

Their growth will always be best nurtured in the calm, loving space beside us. It won’t happen through punishment, ever. Consequences have a place if they make sense and are delivered in a way that doesn’t shame or separate them from us, either physically or emotionally. The best ‘consequence’ is the conversation with you in a space that is held by your warm loving strong presence, in a way that makes it safe for both of you to be curious, explore options, and understand what happened.♥️
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#mindfulparenting #positiveparenting #parenting
When children are struggling to physically control their bodies, we support them in ways that strengthen. If they’re struggling to write, for example, we don’t punish or shame them. We guide them and show them by doing ‘with’. We also lift them up, ‘I know you can do this. Keep going. You’re getting better and better.’ We also don’t wait for perfection. ‘You wrote a number 4! Nice work you!’ We sit with and do with, over and over. We also give them a break when they get frustrated or upset.

It’s the same for behaviour. Big behaviour comes from big feelings or attempts to meet valid needs. (And all needs are valid.) It is this way for all of us. When we’re upset or angry, the last thing we need is for someone to tell us we can’t be, or to lecture or shame us. Kids are the same.

With kids and teens though, there can be a sense that we need to ‘do’ something in response to big behaviour, so we lay down punishments or consequences with a view to teaching a lesson.

But - unless the consequences make sense (punishments never do), they risk teaching lessons we don’t want them to learn:
- that the environment is fragile and won’t tolerate mistakes. 
- that secrecy and lies are a safer option than coming to us. 
- shut down. They put a lid on expressing big feelings. The feelings will still be there, but they aren’t getting the vital guidance from us on how to calm them (through co-regulation). The risk is that they will eventually call on unhealthy ways to calm the fierce stress neurobiology that comes with big feelings.

Consequences have to make sense. Maybe it’s to repair or reconnect. Discipline has to teach. It’s not about what we do to them but about what we nurture within them. Is that trust and the capacity to learn and grow? Or is it fear or shame.

Often the only response that’s needed is a loving conversation with us. ‘What happened?’ ‘What were you hoping would happen?’ ‘What did you need that you didn’t get?’ What can you do differently next time?’ ‘How can you put things right?’ Because if discipline is about learning, the most powerful consequence is the strong, loving conversation with us that lights their way and speaks softly to the safety of us.♥️

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