Anxiety can be a masterful imposter. In children, it can sway away from the more typical avoidant, clingy behaviour and show itself as tantrums, meltdowns and aggression. As if anxiety wasn’t hard enough to deal with!
When children are under the influence of an anxious brain, their behaviour has nothing to do with wanting to push against the limits. They are often great kids who don’t want to do the wrong thing, but they are being driven by a brain in high alert.
If we could see what was happening in their heads when anxiety takes hold like this, their behaviour would make sense. We would want to scoop them up and take them away from the chaos of it all. Of course, that doesn’t mean that they should be getting a free pass on their unruly behaviour. Their angry behaviour makes sense, and it’s important to let them know this, but there will always be better choices they are capable of making.
Once kids have a more solid understanding of why they do what they do, they will be well on their way to finding a better response. Here’s where the adults in their lives will make a critical difference. Parents, grandparents, teachers – anyone who is able to understand and respond to their behaviour as something driven by anxiety, rather than ‘naughty’ behaviour, will be helping them to find healthier, stronger, more effective ways to respond to the world. All kids have it in them to do this, but anxiety can have a sly way of stealing the attention from their strengths. Now to put an end to that.
Anxiety or Aggression?
Anxiety happens when a part of the brain, the amygdala, senses trouble. When it senses threat, real or imagined, it surges the body with hormones (including cortisol, the stress hormone) and adrenaline to make the body strong, fast and powerful. This is the fight or flight response and it has been keeping us alive for thousands of years. It’s what strong, healthy brains are meant to do.
An anxious brain is a strong, healthy brain that is a little overprotective. It is more likely to sense threat and hit the panic button ‘just in case’. When this happens often, it can create ‘anxiety about the anxiety’. One of the awful things about anxiety is the way it launches without warning, and often without need, sending an unsuspecting body unnecessarily into fight or flight.
For kids with anxiety, any situation that is new, unfamiliar, difficult or stressful counts as a potential threat. The fight or flight response happens automatically and instantaneously, sending neurochemicals surging through their bodies, priming them for fight or flight. Every physical symptom that comes with anxiety – racy heart, sick tummy, clammy skin, vomiting, shaky arms or legs – is because of the surging of these neurochemicals. The natural end to the fight or flight response is intense physical activity. If the threat was real, they’d be fighting for their lives or running for it. When there is no need to fight or flee, there is nothing to burn up the neurochemicals and they build up, causing the physical symptoms of anxiety. (For a detailed child-friendly explanation of what causes each of the physical symptoms of anxiety, see here.)
If anxiety is having a hand in the angry behaviour, the signs of anxiety will still be there in some way. Look for any type of avoidant behaviour, sick tummies, headaches, sensitivity to new or unfamiliar situations. Any of these might be a clue that anxiety is hard at work. Take note of when the meltdowns or tantrums happen. Is there a pattern? Do they seem to happen more in unfamiliar situations or situations that might overspend your child’s emotional resources?
Why do some kids show anxiety as anger?
Anxiety is often associated with avoidance or clinginess but it doesn’t necessarily present itself in this way. The physiological driver is the same – a brain under threat – but instead of flight, it initiates fight. It doesn’t matter that there’s nothing at all there to worry about. When the brain thinks there’s trouble, it acts as though it’s true.
Think of this like a smoke alarm. A smoke alarm can’t tell the difference between a real fire and burnt toast, and it doesn’t care. All it wants to do is keep you safe. It does this by making enough noise to get a response. Better safe than sorry. The brain works the same way. An anxious brain is a very protective brain, and it will be quicker to hit the alarm, even when there is no need. This could happen in response to unfamiliar situations or people, playground scuffles, criticism, disappointment, threat of embarrassment or failure – anything that could potentially trigger the feeling that something bad may be about to happen.
The fight response is the brain’s adaptive way of giving a young body the physical resources it needs to deal with a situation that feels potentially harmful. Remember, this reaction happens automatically and instantly. It’s so quick that there’s no time for any conscious consideration as to whether or not the threat is real.
As part of growing up, children regularly find themselves in unfamiliar situations where they have to negotiate and learn strategies for dealing with the world and its people. This is how they learn emotional and social skills that will move them towards being strong, healthy adults. In the meantime though, for an anxious brain, it’s trouble at every turn! Any situation that puts expectations on them and demands that could exceed their own developing resources will have the potential to trigger anxiety.
Like the flight response (avoidance, clinginess), the fight response is an automatic, hardwired response from a brain that thinks it’s under threat. That doesn’t mean that kids can’t be taught to control it – they absolutely can – but first they need to understand what’s happening.
As the adults in their lives, it’s important to be open to the possibility that beneath an aggressive, disruptive child, is an anxious one looking for security and comfort. If anxiety is at play, dealing with aggression as bad behaviour will always inflame the situation. On the other hand, dealing with it as anxiety will give them the strategies and support they need to find their way through, as well as teaching them vital skills that will hold them well for the rest of their lives.
Practical ways to deal with anxiety-driven aggression.
What kids need to know.
• Explain where anxiety comes from.
Kids can do amazing things with the right information, and it’s important not to underestimate their potential for understanding. When it is something that is personally relevant, their capacity for understanding is immense. Here’s what they need to know, but it doesn’t need to happen all at once. Giving them the information over lots of small, incidental chats will be just as powerful.
‘Those times you get really angry are probably confusing for you. I know you don’t want to do the wrong thing and I think it will help if I explain what happens when you get angry like that. First of all, you need to know that everyone gets angry for all sorts of different reasons. Your reason is a really good one – it’s because your brain is working hard to protect you.
There’s a special part of your brain called the amygdala. We all have one. The amygdala’s job is to warn you of danger and keep you safe. Think of it like your own little warrior, there to protect you. Yours works especially hard. When it thinks there might be danger, it surges your body with a type of superhero fuel – oxygen, hormones, and adrenaline – to make you strong fast and powerful enough to deal with the danger.
This could be anything that your brain thinks might hurt you or make you feel uncomfortable – new people, new places, too much noise, having to do something that feels risky. Everybody has something that makes them feel anxious. We’re all the same like that.
Your brain doesn’t care if there actually is something there that could hurt you. It just wants to keep you safe, so it fuels you up just in case. There’s a really cool name for this – it’s called fight or flight – fight the danger or run from it. Guess which one your brain gets you ready for. It’s getting you ready to fight the danger.
This happens really fast – so fast that you won’t even realise it’s happening until you have the angry feelings inside you. Your brain is super speedy and it surges you with fight or flight fuel before it has even thought about whether or not the danger is real. This happens in all of us, but in some people it happens more, especially at times when there’s no need for it. More than anything in the world, your brain wants to protect you and it works really hard to do this – even at times you don’t really need protecting.
Here’s something important you need to know: The same part of the brain that has the very important job of keeping you safe and ready to deal with trouble, also deals with your emotions. When it thinks you might be in danger, it switches on. When it’s on, your emotions will be switched on too. Sometimes they will be switched on big time! This is why you might feel like you want to burst into tears or get really angry.
None of this means that you can blame your brain for losing your temper. What it means is that you have a really strong healthy brain that works hard to look after you. It wants to be the boss of things, but everything will run smoother when you’re the one in charge of your brain!
There’s something else about brains that you need to know. Brains can change. They’re pretty amazing like that. At the moment, your brain tends to be a little overprotective of you but you can train it so that it doesn’t react as much when there’s no danger about. It will still protect you by letting you know when there’s trouble and it will still be awesome at getting you ready to deal with it, but it won’t do it as much when it doesn’t need to.
There are a few things you can do to be the boss of your brain and train it to relax more. It will still be ready to fuel you up if there actually is danger, but if you’re the boss of your brain, you get the final say. What this means is that when there is no danger, you’ll be able to settle your brain much quicker. Let’s talk about some ways to do that.’
• Breathe – but you probably haven’t breathed like this before!
‘Strong deep breaths will always calm an anxious brain (and an angry one!) but that’s not so simple when your brain is busy trying to keep you safe. The last thing it wants to do when it’s in protective warrior mode is to take time out to relax. It thinks that there is some serious work to be done to keep you safe! First let’s talk about why strong deep breaths work, then some special ways to get your breathing perfect.
Strong breathing calls up the front part of your brain, called the prefrontal cortex, which is a part of your brain that is able to calm things down and think things through. When your amygdala thinks there’s danger, it gets bossy and tells this part of the brain that it’s not needed. This is why it’s so important for you to learn how to be the boss of your brain. When you’re in charge, you can get the front part of your brain involved in deciding whether or not to fight or flee.
This is really important. The front of your brain is great at calming your amygdala – the part that’s triggering your fight and the angry feelings.
How do you get the front of your brain involved? By breathing. Breathing is like a lullaby for your amygdala. It helps it to realise that there’s nothing to worry about. When this happens, the amygdala will calm down and so will you. But – you have to practice breathing when you aren’t angry. It’s too hard to do new things when you’re really upset. We all struggle with that! Breathing strong breaths is like any new skill. The more you do it, the better you’ll get.
Here are some fun ways to practice – and it will take some practice, so be patient and keep doing it every day.
Is that hot cocoa you’re holding?!
Pretend you are holding a mug of hot cocoa. Breathe in for three seconds through your nose, as though you are smelling the delicious rich chocolatey smell. Then pretend to blow it cool, by breathing out through your mouth for three seconds. Keep doing this four or five times, then you’ll start to feel yourself relax.
Find yourself a breathing buddy.
Put a soft toy on your belly. Breathe in for three, hold it for a second and then breathe out for three. If the toy is moving, you’re breathing deep into your belly – just like strong breathing is meant to be. You’ve got it.
Remember we talked about changing your brain? Every time you breathe through your anxious feeling, you’re helping to change and strengthen your brain. You’re doing something pretty amazing and the more you do it, the better you’ll get – but you do have to practice!’
• Have your powerful thoughts ready.
‘When you start to feel yourself getting angry, this is the time to let your brain know you’re the boss. Here’s the secret – you’ll have to work out what to think, and practice thinking it, before you get angry. The more you practice, the easier it will get. After you’ve been practicing it for a while, you’ll be able to find your powerful thought without any effort at all. Just like your breathing though, it will take practice. Work out what your powerful thoughts will be. Pretend that you are speaking to your amygdala – that fierce little warrior of yours that is trying to keep your safe. It will always be ready to listen. Practice it out loud or quietly in your head. It’s up to you. ‘It’s okay warrior dude. We’re all good here. You can relax. There’s nothing that can hurt us here.’ Then, keep practicing your strong brave thoughts until they become automatic, which they will.’
And other things to do with them.
The research on the effectiveness of mindfulness could fill its own library. Mindfulness has been proven over and over to have enormous capacity to build a strong body, mind and spirit. Building the brain against anxiety is one of its wonders.
Anxiety happens when the brain spends too much time in the future. This is where it grabs on to the ‘what ifs’. Mindfulness strengthens it to stay in the present. It’s simple, and kids take hold of the concept beautifully. They are mindful little beings anyway, but the more they can strengthen this skill, the stronger they will be. It’s a wonderful skill to have, anxious or not.
Mindfulness is about stepping back and seeing thoughts and feelings come and go, without judgement, but with a relaxed mind. It has been shown to strengthen the connection between the instinctive, emotional back of the brain (the heartland of the fight or flight response) and the pre-frontal cortex (the part of the brain that soothes it back to calm).
Mindfulness for children generally works best it’s kept to about five minutes or less but let them keep going for as long as they want to. Here are some fun ways to practice mindfulness with kids.
• Name it to tame it.
Big emotions live in the right side of the brain. The words that make sense of those emotions live in the left. Sometimes, there is a disconnect between the two. It can happen in all of us. When there is a disconnect, there are big feelings, but they feel overwhelming and they don’t make sense.
Think of it like this. The left part of the brain is ‘this is what’s happening’. It is the literal understanding of the world – the concrete data, the facts. The right part of the brain is ‘this is how I feel about what’s happening’. It’s a more emotional, intuitive understanding of the world. If we only had our left brain, we would have great detail (‘this happened and then this happened’), but it would be a colder, more detached way of responding. If we only had our right brain we would have a sense of how we felt about an experience, and there would be plenty of emotion, but the more rational understanding would be missing. The detail of the world is important (‘this is what happened’) but so is the bigger picture (‘this is how I feel about it’).
For kids, a powerful way to bring calm when they are in the midst of a big feeling is to name the feeling. As put by Mark Brackett from the Center for Emotional Intelligence, ‘if you can name it, you can tame it.’ When your child is in the thick of a big, angry feeling, name the feeling you see. ‘I can see that you’re really angry right now.’ ‘It has really upset you that you weren’t allowed to run through the supermarket. I get that. It’s hard having to be still sometimes isn’t it.’
Hearing the words that fit with their feelings will help to strengthen the connection between the right and left sides of their brain. When this happens, the emotion will start to ‘tame’. It will feel less like an ambush from a big woolly feeling and with your words, it will start to make sense. Be patient. It won’t happen straight away, but it will make a difference. It will also help to expand your child’s emotional vocabulary. This is a powerful part of developing their emotional intelligence, which is vital for any child as they grow.
• Lift them up.
Kids who find themselves regularly throwing tantrums or being aggressive will probably have a lot of focus put on their bad behaviour. Lift them up by focusing on their strengths. Here are some common ones that come with anxiety.
And finally …
If your child seems quick to anger, be open to the possibility that anxiety might be the culprit. The most powerful way to turn any type of anxiety around is to explain to children the driving force behind their behaviour. This will help to empower them and put the focus on their strengths in managing their behaviour and help lift them to full flight.
You might also like …
‘Hey Warrior’ is the book I’ve written for children to help them understand anxiety and to find their ‘brave’. It explains why anxiety feels the way it does, and it will teach them how they can ‘be the boss of their brains’ during anxiety, to feel calm. It’s not always enough to tell kids what to do – they need to understand why it works. Hey Warrior does this, giving explanations in a fun, simple, way that helps things make sense in a, ‘Oh so that’s how that works!’ kind of way, alongside gorgeous illustrations.
[irp posts=”1818″ name=”18 Important Things That Kids With Anxiety Need to Know”]
This is a great article. Concise, clear, evidence based. Practical strategies.
Thank you, I can’t express enough how much this has helped me. I have been struggling with dealing with my 6year olds emotions for 3 years now, no one understands what we go through but this has described exactly her! I feel awful for not dealing with her better but it is so constant and overwhelming. I look forward to helping her coup and manage her anxiety.
I am a 12 year old and I have just read your article and it has helped me so much I have had really bad anxiety for my whole life but I never thought that it could be the reason behind my tantrums if my mother had have known this when I was younger then I probably would still pack them
Lily I’m so pleased this article has helped you. Every day we are finding out so much more about how brains work, but there is a lot we still don’t know. What I know for certain is that parents do their very best. This information is still getting ‘out there’. It isn’t something that tends to be widely known, but this is slowly changing. I love that you have found this information. Now that you know better, you will be able to gently learn how to manage your tantrums. Don’t worry if this doesn’t happen quickly. You are built for beautiful things.
Thank you for this. This will help with our five-year-old.
Thank you, I have an anxious 6 year old who struggles with anger and tantrums regularly over the smallest of inconveniences or “not getting his way” I have struggled with how exactly to address the problems since it started around 3 years old. I have had tons of unhelpful responses from friends and family on how to punish him for this behavior and rude comments suggesting I spoil him to much. To me through it is very clear he is not being unruly, he is struggling and his response is real to him and not manipulative in nature. He is a good kid, he is always generously thinking of others, he loves being helpful, he is an amazingly smart student, he cares so much about his little brothers and all family. My husband and a lot of his family struggles with GAD too, this has been the best and most helpful article I have read by far. Thank you.
I have had flight symptoms for decades. Maybe my whole life. I was never loved for who I was. My mom wanted me to be a ‘nice girl’ and just get along with all the distinction around me.
We all have a God given purpose and talent. We should never be told we need to fit into societies norms or expectations. We are all sovereign beings meant to evolve into a life of peace, prosperity, and abundance.
My granddaughter hits others in the face because they anger her. If she didn’t express her anger, she would get depressed. She is four years old and in head start.
We Must pay attention and deal with these problems immediately. So much more I could say. Peace and good will to All…
My 12 yo daughter has been struggling for almost two years. At first I chalked it up to her being the baby and her older sister ( only a year older) getting more attention because of her abilities in softball. ( extra practices, paid lessons attention from coaches and other parents from the team). This year however she has come into her own and become an awesome catcher and baller in her own right. Her sister is on a different team this year and they both seem to flourish apart. When ever she is asked to do her chores she explodes! Screaming no and shut up to myself and her step dad. She told him today that she wished he would have never married me. He has raised her since he was 18 months old so doesn’t remember her bio dad. He is not consistently in her life. He is bipolar and has addiction issues. I have never refused him contact with them over the phone but it is beyond sporadic. She has swung at both of us kicked us…. the whole nine. Punched or kicked holes in her wall. She wakes up in the middle of the night and cooks… she eats 3 meals a day and our pantry always has snacks or other extras they have access to. I’m printing this article for her and hoping that it awakens some self control in her. When she has one of her meltdowns we send her to her room where she proceeds to scream like a banshee throw things at her walls slam her door and has recently started hitting herself. She has been diagnosed with ADHD but I wonder if it is something more. I’m almost to the point of thinking she may need more help than I can give her. 18 months ago I had an amputation that I’m still recovering from and I don’t know if my limited abilities have anything to do with her increased level of rage but am honestly open to any advice at all.
Some of this article makes sense, but I do have issues with how society says we have to constantly lift our children up. Society wants to give them 5th, 9th, last place trophies so they “feel” good all the time, but this just makes crashes of negativity even stronger.
I think the majority of depression in our children is the fact we try to constantly have them on a “high” of happiness, which is impossible by the way, your brain can only handle producing so much of specific chemicals. We end up driving children into the ground of negativity.
Your child isn’t special, they are not a princess. If you keep telling them that they will fall hard in high school.
When I was growing up my mom, who was amazing, always told us we were special, but when my sister (5 years younger) was constantly told she was a princess and special and the best singer, dancer, etc, she fell so incredibly hard once she started getting the taste of the real world. Now she is cynical, negative, always has “health” problems and rarely ever happy with life. Life is always against her in her mind.
Love your children, protect them, but they should never be first in the family. If your child is #1 then your family is broken and your child can’t live up to that expectation. When the marriage is first then the child feels safer and in turn is happier, yet, somehow, America has this backward these days. In the end, the child ends up broken, the marriage broken and people confused as to what was done wrong.
This also greatly increases anxiety in children when they are put 1st. We would think they would be happy, but they are not.
When our daughter was hit with an incurable disease, we made our focus on her #1, practically ignoring our other 3. Some of that needed to happen to help her, but in less than a year she was snobby, mean to her siblings, self-absorbed and just plain spoiled at 5 years old. We realized our mistake and quickly reigned her in and she is much better.
Our children are special, to us, but be careful building them up on a pedestal, they will fall, and fall hard and end up resenting you for it.
Thanks, I needed to hear that 😉
Wonderful article. My son is 6 years old and had these aggression outbursts over minor things. He gets upset, angry and screams and tells me he can’t control it. I talk with him, try to distract him but I usually have to wait till it’s passed. He then gets upset after and apologizes and hugs me. He’s has displayed anxiety every now and then where he doesn’t want to do something because he feels nervous, like a presentation in class or starting a new soccer club. He doesn’t have these outbursts at school.
Other then that he is a beautiful boy, he’s smart, doing very well at school and has great friends.
This was a very informative article. My grandson has some tantrums that are very hard for him to understand. This will help a lot
I have to also say this. We are being urbanized in many ways where we live, and we hate it! Fast track freeways, pack and stack apts., condos, and thousands of new homes, make our area so congested and stressful. So many children have to live in this environment and even those with homes may only have a small square of grass in the back yard, cannot be on their own to roam, and really live like children should. Schools keep them inside most of the day and they are so confined. My husband and I are in our mid 60s and remember how it was for us as children. From young we were free to walk around our small towns, exploring. When we lived in rural areas, we could explore nature and feel free! Children need that, they need sun, exercise and nature. How can children be children if they are not allowed to experience what has been normal for children for centuries? Life inside with TV or wifi is not normal, not healthful, and yet the children are expected to live this way. Even dogs are stressed because they do not live in environments that they need. Big paying jobs in large cities are not the easiest on people in general. Many studies show how getting out in nature is so healthful for mind and body. And when we grew up we did not have all these issues like kids do now, because life was DIFFERENT. We expect kids to adjust, but how can they? They are kids and there is a reason for their issues. Blue light, computer screens, processed foods, etc. modern life is not natural.
As I am reading this article it has my granddaughter name all over it! She is ADHD PTSD, OCD ODD. I have had her since birth. All the meds they have here on is crazy. She definitely has ADHD Im wondering if all these other diagnoses could just be anxiety!!!!