Dealing with Depression: 14 NEW Insights That Will Change the Way You Think About It

Dealing with Depression: 14 NEW Insights That Will Change the Way You Think About It

Depression has a reach that shows no favourites and no limits. It has no eye for age, gender, culture or anything else that might separate us into easily conquered groups. It is a human condition, and as humans, we all have the potential to be touched by it in some way. If we are not directly dealing with depression, then chances are we will be indirectly affected by watching someone we love struggle against it. 

There is so much research happening in the area of depression and as a result, the way we understand it is changing shape dramatically. The old ways of thinking about depression are being challenged (finally!). This is giving way to new hope for more effective treatments and a more accurate, less stigmatised understanding of what depression is, where it comes from and what it means.

Dealing with Depression: What you need to know.

Here is what you need to know about depression. They are new insights that will have a lofty influence over the way depression is understood, perceived and treated:

  1. Depression is an illness of the entire body, not just the mind.

    Depression is a systemic illness that affects the whole body, not just the mind. This may be why people with depression are more likely to be diagnosed with cancer and cardiovascular disease. Depression is linked to oxidative stress in the body. This is a process in which the body over-produces free radicals and is unable to get rid of them from the body. The free radicals cause damage to critical parts of cells, undermining their ability to function effectively and potentially causing those cells to die. The overproduction of free radicals can be triggered by stress, environmental pollutants, alcohol, tobacco, food and the body’s natural immune response (inflammation).   

  2. Chronic inflammation in the bloodstream can fuel depression.

    Among people with depression, concentrations of two markers of inflammation, (CRP and IL-6) are elevated by up to 50%. Stress is one of the main contributors to inflammation. A high-fat diet or high body mass are also culprits. Inflammation is usually a sign that the body is trying to fight some sort of pathogen. This is what healthy bodies are meant to do, but in some people, the systemic inflammation is persistent. It is widely accepted that this inflammation is behind all physical and mental illness. Research has also found that depression caused by chronic inflammation is resistant to traditional therapy methods, but that it can be relieved with activities such as yoga, meditation, and exercise.

  3. Inflammation increases glutamate in the brain, creating a vulnerability to depression. 

    People with depression who show signs of systemic inflammation have elevated levels of glutamate in certain areas of the brain. Glutamate is used by brain cells to communicate but when levels become too high, it can become toxic to brain cells and glia, the cells that support brain health. Researchers think this may be one of the ways inflammation harms the brain and increases the risk of depression. High levels of glutamate in these areas of the brain are associated with anhedonia, (the inability to experience pleasure) and slow motor function (also associated with depression). Inflammation in this study was determined by a blood test for C-reactive protein (CRP). 

  4. Exercise helps to protect the brain against depression.

    Exercise restores the levels of two important neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, to healthy levels. Exercise seems to go a long way towards repairing the damage that is done by inflammation. The research was conducted using exercise sessions of between 8 and 20 minutes. The effects of the exercise in the week following the session.

  5. Early life stress is a major risk factor for later depression.

    Adults who were abused or neglected as children are almost twice as likely to experience depression. The increased risk is associated with greater sensitivity of brain circuits involved in processing threat and fuelling the stress response. Research suggests that exposure to neglect or abuse reduces activity the part of the brain (the ventral striatum) that processes rewarding experiences. This is likely to affect the capacity to experience enthusiasm, pleasure or other positive emotions.

  6. A depressed brain shows a different response to stress.

    In a study involving mice, scientists found vast differences in the brain activity of helpless mice and resilient mice. (Mice are not used because someone thinks they’re cute, but because the mouse model of depression is biologically similar to human depression.) The brains of helpless mice were remarkably similar in many ways. They showed an overall reduction in brain activity, particularly in areas that would affect their ability to deal with stress. These areas of reduced activity included the parts of the brain that are critical for organising thoughts and action, processing emotion, motivation, defensive behaviour, coping with stress, and learning and memory.

  7. Genes are NOT destiny. The environment can alter a genetic predisposition to depression.

    Still with tiny rodents – a study with rats has shown that the environment can alter a genetic vulnerability to depression. When rats that were genetically bred to be depressed received a type of ‘rat psychotherapy’, they showed significantly less depressive behaviour. Their blood biomarkers for depression also changed to non-depressed levels. The ‘psychotherapy’ involved putting the rats in an enriched environment that had space, toys to chew on, places to hide and climb, and opportunities to socialise with other mice.

    ‘If someone has a strong history of depression in her family and is afraid she or her future children will develop depression, our study is reassuring. It suggests that even with a high predisposition for depression, psychotherapy or behavioral activation can alleviate it’. Eva Redei, lead study investigator, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. 

  8. Nature? Nurture? Well actually, it’s both.

    The greatest influence on the development of depression is neither genes nor environment, but the interaction between the two. Several genes have been associated with depression, particularly those that affect serotonin, the neurochemical that acts as to regulate mood. A genetic variation (allele) found in the serotonin transporter seems to influence the way a person responds to stress. Those with the ‘S’ (short) allele were more likely to develop depression than those with the ‘L’ (long) allele when they were exposed to the same type and amount of stressors. This research suggests that those with the ‘L’ allele can adapt more effectively to their environment. Those with the ‘S’ allele appear to have a brain that is less able to adapt to adversity. 

  9. Depression increases risk for cardiovascular disease but …

    Depression is a known risk factor for stroke, heart attack, and death, but treating depression significantly reduces the risk to non-depressed levels. It is unclear which comes first – the depression or the heart disease. Heart disease may increase the risk of depression, or depression may inflame the risk factors associated heart problems, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or lack of exercise.

  10. Meditation and exercise. The power couple.

     When done together, meditation and aerobic exercise reduce depressive symptoms by 40%. The combination  seems to help people with depression to be less overwhelmed or influenced by negative thoughts. The study involved 30 minutes of focused attention meditation, followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise. Meditation and exercise are a powerful combo and they seem to work on a number of levels:

    •  they promote the growth and preservation of brain cells, which is critical for mental health. The slowing down of brain cell growth, or the reduction of brain cells can lead to all sorts of mental health problems, including depression;

    •  they nurture the development of new cognitive skills that get rid of the negative filter;

    •  they reduce the influence of past memories in fuelling depression. 

  11. Affectionate mothering can protect a newborn from the potential effects of maternal depression.

    Mothers with depressive symptoms who were more responsive to her baby’s signals, and who engaged in more gentle, affectionate touching during face to face play, had babies who showed less physiological evidence of stress. The research suggests that by interacting sensitively with their babies, mothers who have symptoms of depression may be ‘turning on’ certain genes that help infants manage stress in healthy ways.

  12. A depressed brain shows a disconnection between brain regions that process emotion.

    Brain scans of young adults showed that in those who had experienced more than one episode of depression, the amygdala (involved in detecting emotion) is disconnected from the rest of the brain’s emotional network. Researchers suggest this may interfere with how accurately emotions are processed. This disconnection is likely to be the reason that people with depression are more likely to experience neutral information as negative.

  13. Burnout and depression overlap.

    In research looking at the overlap between burnout and depression, 1,386 people were categorised as either having burnout or not. 85% of people who were identified as having burnout also met the criteria for depression. In contrast, only 1% of people who did not have burnout met the criteria for depression. People with burnout were about three times as likely to have a history of depression, and almost four times as likely to be currently taking antidepressants. 

  14. Social media use increases likelihood of depression.

    The more time young adults spend on social media, the greater their risk of depression. The association between social media use and depression is linear, meaning the risk of depression increases with time spent on social media. The reasons for this are unclear, but the researchers have a few theories:

•  people who are already depressed may be turning to social media to find comfort;

•  the images on social media are highly idealised and may lead to feelings of inadequacy, envy, and cause distorted comparisons. 

•  social media can be a big dirty time hog (come on, you know it’s true), causing people to feel as though they have wasted valuable time;

•  social media use could be feeding an internet addiction, a psychiatric condition that can fuel depressive symptoms

•  the impact of cyber-bullies and other not-so-nice interactions.

And finally …

Depression is more than thoughts and feelings. It’s more than a sad mind or a body that doesn’t feel the way it used to. After settling for decades on the idea that depression is because of broken thinking or a chemical deficiency in the brain, research is now moving forward and showing us that depression is an illness of the body, most probably initiated by genetics and environment. Because of this, we are in a better position than ever to understand depression. With this expanded understanding comes the greater promise of new treatments and management strategies for a happier, richer life, free from the constraints of depression.

[irp posts=”1528″ name=”When Someone You Love Has Depression”]

15 Comments

James

I am 34 years old and am currently battling depression. I do not have funding for a Dr. what are ways to cope with this?

Reply
Karen Young

If you aren’t able to see a doctor there are other things you can do to help strengthen yourself against depression. There is so much research that has shown mindfulness, exercise and gut health are important ways to do this. You will find more information and articles explaining how these work on this link https://www.heysigmund.com/category/being-human/depression/. One of the awful things about depression is that the negative thinking and hopelessness that comes with it can have you believing that nothing makes a difference, but there is very convincing research – and a lot of it – showing that these can really make a difference.

Reply
Karen - Hey Sigmund

Timothy there is no way to die without hurting your loved ones. Your pain doesn’t end, it just gets transferred to them. The difference is that the pain will stay with them forever. The confusion, the questions, the vast gap in their lives from not having you there – it will never end. I understand you are in pain now, but there is a way through this for you. It will take the fight of your life, but you can do this. Have you spoken with a doctor? There some people find relief from medication, but be patient if you do this because it can take up to 8 weeks. Also, different medications might have different effects for different people, so it may be a case of experimenting before they find the right one for you. As well as this, a counsellor will be able to support you through so that you don’t feel as though you are doing this alone. Finally, here is an article for you to read https://www.heysigmund.com/dealing-with-depression-meditation-exercise/. Meditation and exercise have been found to reduce the symptoms of depression by up to 40%. They work by changing the structure and function of the brain.

I know you are hurting, and I know at the moment it feels as though there is no way through – that’s what depression does. It fills you with hopelessness, but this is the depression talking. The truth is that you can beat this. Please don’t give up and please don’t lose hope. You are so important to the people who love you. Keep moving forward, and one day you will be grateful you didn’t end your life. Love and strength to you.

Reply
simon

I would like to see more about Fibromyalgia & its links to depression! As a sufferer of both, its hard to remember which came 1st?
High levels of Strong medication, (Morphine and years of Co-Codamol), for the pain seems to desensitize the brain making it more susceptible to Depression.
It also seems harder to deal / resolve the depression – Tried meditation – Gets disrupted by pain!
Try to keep active, but exercise is right out of the window – due to the pain levels!

Reply
Jane

I would like to see something discussing depression/anxiety in the elderly specifically.

Reply
louise

I really appreciate all the research that you gather together about depression but as a lay person, I just wonder what is the definition of depression? I’m fairly sure that I don’t suffer from clinical depression, but there are periods in my life when I feel seriously down/ depressed. So does this research apply only to clinical depression?
I’m a big fan of yours and look forward to your weekly postings – always something there that is relevant to my life even if I no longer have children living at home. Thank you.

Reply
Peter

This article was very interesting and a lot of it related to me. I just can’t see how it ‘deals’ with depression.

Maybe it’s just me. I’m running out.

Reply
Hey Sigmund

Peter the hope is that it will lead into new treatment areas. Also, there are really significant findings around the importance of meditation, mindfulness and exercise in managing depression. Your environment is also critical. If you are in a stressful job or work environment, or if you are around people or increase your stress, either by the extreme demands they put on you or the way they treat you, that could potentially inflame symptoms. High stress can cause inflammation which can lead to depression. Keep fighting for you. Here is an article that also talks about some ways to manage depression that have been proven to be helpful for many https://www.heysigmund.com/the-non-medication-ways-to-deal-with-depression-that-are-as-effective-as-medication/

Reply
Nedra

Thanks! As one who suffered several hospitalizations, I feel these are true statements! Nothing helped me.no meds,counseling , et. I went thru hypnotism, and misery. I think time faith and family and friend s saved me. This all makes sense!!!!

Reply
Hey Sigmund

I’m so pleased this makes sense Nedra. The new research is really promising – it’s good to know the area is getting so much attention.

Reply
Audrey B

It’s good to know about the newest information on depression. It gives more hope. Thank you!

Reply
Dr Mixs

Hi there…

this is totally spot on… it’s wonderful to have information like this going out. The body and mind are linked and it is unethical to address the one without the other.

Thank you for the read.

Reply

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When you can’t cut out (their worries), add in (what they need for felt safety). 

Rather than focusing on what we need them to do, shift the focus to what we can do. Make the environment as safe as we can (add in another safe adult), and have so much certainty that they can do this, they can borrow what they need and wrap it around themselves again and again and again.

You already do this when they have to do things that don’t want to do, but which you know are important - brushing their teeth, going to the dentist, not eating ice cream for dinner (too often). The key for living bravely is to also recognise that so many of the things that drive anxiety are equally important. 

We also need to ask, as their important adults - ‘Is this scary safe or scary dangerous?’ ‘Do I move them forward into this or protect them from it?’♥️
The need to feel connected to, and seen by our people is instinctive. 

THE FIX: Add in micro-connections to let them feel you seeing them, loving them, connecting with them, enjoying them:

‘I love being your mum.’
‘I love being your dad.’
‘I missed you today.’
‘I can’t wait to hang out with you at bedtime 
and read a story together.’

Or smiling at them, playing with them, 
sharing something funny, noticing something about them, ‘remembering when...’ with them.

And our adult loves need the same, as we need the same from them.♥️
Our kids need the same thing we do: to feel safe and loved through all feelings not just the convenient ones.

Gosh it’s hard though. I’ve never lost my (thinking) mind as much at anyone as I have with the people I love most in this world.

We’re human, not bricks, and even though we’re parents we still feel it big sometimes. Sometimes these feelings make it hard for us to be the people we want to be for our loves.

That’s the truth of it, and that’s the duality of being a parent. We love and we fury. We want to connect and we want to pull away. We hold it all together and sometimes we can’t.

None of this is about perfection. It’s about being human, and the best humans feel, argue, fight, reconnect, own our ‘stuff’. We keep working on growing and being more of our everythingness, just in kinder ways.

If we get it wrong, which we will, that’s okay. What’s important is the repair - as soon as we can and not selling it as their fault. Our reaction is our responsibility, not theirs. This might sound like, ‘I’m really sorry I yelled. You didn’t deserve that. I really want to hear what you have to say. Can we try again?’

Of course, none of this means ‘no boundaries’. What it means is adding warmth to the boundary. One without the other will feel unsafe - for them, us, and others.

This means making sure that we’ve claimed responsibility- the ability to respond to what’s happening. It doesn’t mean blame. It means recognising that when a young person is feeling big, they don’t have the resources to lead out of the turmoil, so we have to lead them out - not push them out.

Rather than focusing on what we want them to do, shift the focus to what we can do to bring felt safety and calm back into the space.

THEN when they’re calm talk about what’s happened, the repair, and what to do next time.

Discipline means ‘to teach’, not to punish. They will learn best when they are connected to you. Maybe there is a need for consequences, but these must be about repair and restoration. Punishment is pointless, harmful, and outdated.

Hold the boundary, add warmth. Don’t ask them to do WHEN they can’t do. Wait until they can hear you and work on what’s needed. There’s no hurry.♥️
Recently I chatted with @rebeccasparrow72 , host of ABC Listen’s brilliant podcast, ‘Parental as Anything: Teens’. I loved this chat. Bec asked all the questions that let us crack the topic right open. Our conversation was in response to a listener’s question, that I expect will be familiar to many parents in many homes. Have a listen here:
https://www.abc.net.au/listen/programs/parental-as-anything-with-maggie-dent/how-can-i-help-my-anxious-teen/104035562
School refusal is escalating. Something that’s troubling me is the use of the word ‘school can’t’ when talking about kids.

Stay with me.

First, let’s be clear: school refusal isn’t about won’t. It’s about can’t. Not truly can’t but felt can’t. It’s about anxiety making school feel so unsafe for a child, avoidance feels like the only option.

Here’s the problem. Language is powerful, and when we put ‘can’t’ onto a child, it tells a deficiency story about the child.

But school refusal isn’t about the child.
It’s about the environment not feeling safe enough right now, or separation from a parent not feeling safe enough right now. The ‘can’t’ isn’t about the child. It’s about an environment that can’t support the need for felt safety - yet.

This can happen in even the most loving, supportive schools. All schools are full of anxiety triggers. They need to be because anything new, hard, brave, growthful will always come with potential threats - maybe failure, judgement, shame. Even if these are so unlikely, the brain won’t care. All it will read is ‘danger’.

Of course sometimes school actually isn’t safe. Maybe peer relationships are tricky. Maybe teachers are shouty and still using outdated ways to manage behaviour. Maybe sensory needs aren’t met.

Most of the time though it’s not actual threat but ’felt threat’.

The deficiency isn’t with the child. It’s with the environment. The question isn’t how do we get rid of their anxiety. It’s how do we make the environment feel safe enough so they can feel supported enough to handle the discomfort of their anxiety.

We can throw all the resources we want at the child, but:

- if the parent doesn’t believe the child is safe enough, cared for enough, capable enough; or

- if school can’t provide enough felt safety for the child (sensory accommodations, safe peer relationships, at least one predictable adult the child feels safe with and cared for by),

that child will not feel safe enough.

To help kids feel safe and happy at school, we have to recognise that it’s the environment that needs changing, not the child. This doesn’t mean the environment is wrong. It’s about making it feel more right for this child.♥️

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